Tuesday, September 11, 2018

What is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?

What is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus. This is the virus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS. HIV is a complicated virus. It reproduces primarily in specialized cells of the body's immune system called CD4 lymphocytes. During HIV replication, the CD4 cells are destroyed. As more and more cells are killed, the body loses the ability to fight many infections. If the number of CD4 cells in the bloodstream falls below 200 per cubic millimeter, or if some other special health conditions occur, the person is defined as having AIDS.

 These special health conditions include infections and cancers that take advantage of the suppressed immune system. Regardless of the CD4 count, people with HIV infection carry the virus and can spread it to others through unprotected sex or contact with blood or some other body fluids. People who are at high risk for acquiring HIV should be tested at least annually. Sometimes, health care professionals request or require testing as part of evaluation and treatment for other conditions, such as women undergoing treatment with assisted reproductive technologies for infertility or treatment of viral hepatitis.

 There is increasing concern that not enough people are being tested. Events such as National HIV Testing Day have been used to raise awareness and increase participation in testing. In some cases, HIV testing may be required by law. This occurs for blood that is used for transfusions, organ donors, and military personnel. States may select additional populations for mandatory testing, such as prisoners or newborns. What are the different types of HIV testing? There are three main types of HIV tests: antibody tests, RNA (viral load) tests, and a combination test that detects both antibodies and viral protein called p24 (antibody-antigen test, or HIV Ab-Ag test). All tests are designed to detect HIV-1, which is the type of HIV in the United States. Some antibody tests and the combination test can also detect HIV-2 infections, which are usually limited to West Africa. No test is perfect; tests may be falsely positive or falsely negative or impossible to interpret. HIV antibody tests (ELISA/LIA): HIV possesses many unique proteins on its surface and inside the virus itself. When someone is infected with HIV, their body produces proteins designed to tag the virus for elimination by the immune system. These proteins are called antibodies, and they are directed against the unique proteins of HIV. Unfortunately, these HIV antibodies do not eliminate the virus, but their presence serves as a marker to show that someone is infected with HIV. HIV antibody tests are the most commonly used tests to determine if someone has HIV.

 Antibody testing is usually done on a blood sample, often using an enzyme-linked assay called an ELISA or EIA. In this test, a person's serum is allowed to react with virus proteins that have been produced in the laboratory. If the person has been infected with HIV, the antibodies in the serum will bind to the HIV proteins, and the extent of this binding can be measured. Negative EIA results are usually available in a day or so. RAPID TEST: There are some rapid HIV testing kits on the market that can be used in a health care professional's office or other points of care. Most of these kits still require blood to be drawn, although it can be done using a simple finger stick in some cases. HIV RNA tests: The HIV RNA is different than all human RNA, and tests have been developed to detect HIV RNA in a person's blood. Because this test can be used to estimate the amount of circulating HIV in the blood, it is often referred to as an HIV viral load. This uses a type of test called a polymerase chain reaction (PCR).


 These tests are important for newborn screening of HIV-positive mothers since maternal antibody may cross the placenta and be present in the newborn. These tests may also be helpful in detecting HIV infection in the first four weeks following exposure, before antibodies have had time to develop. However, they are costly and are not routinely used to screen for infection. HIV antibody-antigen (Ab-Ag) test: The HIV Ab-Ag test detects antibodies directed against HIV-1 or HIV-2, as well as a protein called p24, which forms part of the core of the virus (an antigen of the virus). This is important because it takes weeks for antibodies to form after the initial infection, even though the virus (and the p24 protein) is present in the blood. Thus, Ab-Ag testing may allow for earlier detection of HIV infections. Preliminary studies suggest that diagnosis could be made an average of one week earlier using the Ab-Ag test, compared to antibody testing alone. The test uses a reaction known as "chemiluminescence" to detect antibodies and p24 protein antigen. In other words, if either the antibody or the antigen is present, the test reaction emits light that registers on a detector. There is only one currently approved antibody-antigen test, the Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay. If this test is positive, it is recommended it be repeated.

Tests that remain positive are confirmed with Western blot as described above. How accurate is an HIV test? What is the window period for an HIV test? The current testing protocols are highly accurate but not perfect. The probability of a false result on the test depends on the test and on the person's risk factors for getting infected. The lower the risk of getting HIV, the higher the probability of a false- positive result. Falsely negative tests occur in people who are truly infected with HIV but have negative tests. Among 1,000 people who are truly infected, rapid tests will be falsely negative in zero to six people, depending on the test.

Negative antibody tests in people infected with HIV may occur because antibody concentrations are low or because antibodies have not yet developed. On average, antibodies take about four weeks to reach detectable levels after initial infection, and falsely negative tests may occur during this so-called HIV window period. Individuals with negative tests and who had high risk for HIV exposure should be retested in two to three months. Falsely positive tests occur when uninfected people have positive results. Among 1,000 people who do not have disease, rapid tests will be falsely positive in zero to nine people, depending on the test. This is the main reason for not relying on a single positive test for diagnosis.

 As discussed above, all positive initial tests must be confirmed with a follow-up test (Western blot). When both tests are positive, the likelihood of a person being HIV infected is >99%. Sometimes, the Western blot may be indeterminate, meaning that it is neither positive nor negative. In these cases, the tests are usually repeated at a later date or an RNA test is done. Is HIV testing necessary for pregnant women? HIV testing is critically important for pregnant women. HIV testing is recommended at the beginning of each pregnancy during prenatal care. If any HIV risk factors are present or there is a high incidence of HIV in the population, testing should be repeated in the third trimester.


There have been enormous advances in the treatment of HIV-infected pregnant women. With proper management, the probability of transmitting the virus to the fetus is less than 2%. Without proper management, the risk of transmission is as high as 33%. Because undiagnosed HIV is so common, it is necessary to test all pregnant women. It is strongly recommended that all children born to women with HIV also be tested. For More Information: https://healthcarentsickcare.in/why-us/ For Your Health Interest healthcare nt sickcare Get Us IN +91 9766060629 healthcarentsickcare.in App: bit.ly/PRANAYA

What are the types of hair loss?

What are the types of hair loss? Many conditions, diseases, and improper hair care result in excessive hair loss. People who notice their hair shedding in large amounts after combing or brushing, or whose hair becomes thinner or fall out, should consult a dermatologist. With a correct diagnosis, many people with hair loss can be helped. The medical term for hair loss is alopecia. Pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia), the most common type of alopecia, affects roughly one-third of men and women. It's typically permanent. Another type of alopecia, alopecia areata, can be temporary. It can involve hair loss on your scalp or other parts of your body.

Androgenetic alopecia Having androgenetic alopecia may mean you experience hair loss as early as during your teen years. For men, this type of baldness is typically characterized by hair loss that begins at the temples and crown. The end result may be partial or complete baldness. Women with androgenetic alopecia usually have hair loss limited to thinning at the front, sides or crown. Complete baldness rarely occurs in women. Androgenetic alopecia is caused by heredity. Although it's most common among men, it can also affect women. A history of androgenetic alopecia on either side of your family increases your risk of balding. Heredity also affects the age at which you begin to lose hair and the developmental speed, pattern and extent of your baldness. Alopecia areata With alopecia areata, baldness usually occurs in small, round, smooth patches.

 You may lose only scalp hair, or you may lose body hair as well. Alopecia areata is classified as an autoimmune disease, but the cause is unknown. People who develop this type of baldness are generally in good health. Some scientists believe that some people are genetically predisposed to develop alopecia areata and that a trigger, such as a virus or something else in the environment, sets off the condition. A family history of alopecia areata makes you more likely to develop it. With alopecia areata, your hair generally grows back, but you may lose and regrow your hair a number of times. What is normal hair growth? About 90 percent of the hair on a person's scalp is growing at any one time. The growth phase lasts between two and six years. Ten percent of the hair in a resting are phase that lasts two to three months. At the end of its resting stage, the hair is shed. When hair is shed, new hair from the same follicle replaces it and the growing cycle starts again. Scalp hair grows about one-half inch a month.

 As people age, their rate of hair growth slows. Most hair shedding is due to the normal hair cycle, and losing 50 to 100 hairs per day is no cause for alarm. If you are concerned about excessive hair loss or dramatic thinning, consult your dermatologist. What are the causes of hair loss? Improper hair cosmetic use or improper hair care - Many men and women use chemical treatments on their hair, including dyes, tints, bleaches, straighteners and permanent waves. These treatments rarely damage hair if they are done correctly. However, the hair can become weak and break if any of these chemicals are used too often. Hair can also break if the solution is left on too long, if two procedures are done on the same day, or if bleach is applied to previously bleached hair. If hair becomes brittle from chemical treatments, it is best to stop until the hair has grown out. 1.Diseases like diabetes, lupus and thyroid disorders can cause hair loss. Both an over-active thyroid and an under-active thyroid can cause hair loss.

Your doctor can diagnosis thyroid disease with laboratory tests. Hair loss associated with thyroid disease can be reversed with proper treatment. 2.Poor nutrition. Having inadequate protein or iron in your diet or poor nourishment in other ways can cause you to experience hair loss. Fad diets, crash diets and certain illnesses, such as eating disorders, can cause poor nutrition. Inadequate protein in diet - Some people who go on crash diets that are low in protein, or have abnormal eating habits, may develop protein malnutrition.

The body will save protein by shifting growing hair into the resting phase. Massive hair shedding can occur two to three months later. Hair can then be pulled out from the roots fairly easily. This condition can be reversed and prevented by eating the proper amount of protein and, when dieting, maintaining adequate protein intake. 3.Medications. Certain drugs used to treat gout, arthritis, depression, heart problems and high blood pressure may cause hair loss in some people. Taking birth control pills also may result in hair loss for some women. 4.Medical treatments. Undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy may cause you to develop alopecia. After your treatment ends, your hair typically begins to regrow. 5.Recent high fever, severe flu or surgery. You may notice you have less hair three to four months after events such as an illness or surgery. These conditions cause hair to shift rapidly into a resting phase (telogen effluvium), meaning you'll see less new hair growth. A normal amount of hair typically will appear after the growth phase resumes. 6.Infancy. Newborns often lose hair during the first several months of life. This baby hair (vellus) is eventually replaced by more permanent hair. It's also common for babies to lose a patch of hair on the back of their heads from rubbing against mattresses, playpens and car seats. Hair will grow back once a baby begins to spend more time sitting up. 7.Hairstyles that pull on the hair, like ponytails and braids, should not be pulled tightly and should be alternated with looser hairstyles. Constant pull causes some hair loss, especially along the sides of the scalp. 8.Shampooing, combing and brushing too often can also damage hair, causing it to break. Using a cream rinse or conditioner after shampooing will make it easier to comb and more manageable.

When hair is wet, it is more fragile, so vigorous rubbing with a towel, and rough combing and brushing should be avoided. Do not follow the old rule of 100 brush strokes a day that damages hair. Instead, use wide toothed combs and brushes with smooth tips. 9.Hereditary thinning or balding - Hereditary balding or thinning is the most common cause of hair loss. The tendency can be inherited from either the mother's or father's side of the family. Women with this trait develop thin hair, but do not become completely bald. The condition is called androgenetic alopecia and it can start in the teens, twenties or thirties. 10.Alopecia areata - In this type of hair loss, hair usually falls out, resulting in totally smooth, round patches about the size of a coin or larger. It can, rarely, result in complete loss of scalp and body hair. This disease may affect children or adults of any age.


The cause of alopecia areata is unknown. Apart from the hair loss, affected persons are generally in excellent health. In most cases, the hair regrows by itself. Dermatologists can treat many people with this condition. Treatments include topical medications, a special kind of light treatment, or in some cases pills. 11.Childbirth - When a woman is pregnant, more of her hair will be growing. However, after a woman delivers her baby, many hair enter the resting phase of the hair cycle. Within two to three months, some women will notice large amounts of hair coming out in their brushes and combs. This can last one to six months, but resolves completely in most cases. 12.Cancer treatments - Some cancer treatments will cause hair cells to stop dividing. Hair become thin and break off as they exit the scalp. This occurs one to three weeks after the treatment. Patients can lose up to 90 percent of their scalp hair. The hair will regrow after treatment ends. Patients may want to get wigs before treatment. 13.Birth control pills - Women who lose hair while taking birth control pills usually have an inherited tendency for hair thinning. If hair thinning occurs, a woman can consult her gynaecologist about switching to another birth control pill. When a women stops using oral contraceptives, she may notice that her hair begins shedding two or three months later. This may continue for six months when it usually stops.

This is similar to hair loss after the birth of a child. 14.Low serum iron - Iron deficiency occasionally produces hair loss. Some people do not have enough iron in their diets or may not fully absorb iron. Women who have heavy menstrual periods may develop iron deficiency. Low iron can be detected by laboratory tests and can be corrected by taking iron pills. 15.Major surgery/chronic illness - Anyone who has a major operation may notice increased hair shedding within one to three months afterwards. The condition reverses itself within a few months but people who have a severe chronic illness may shed hair indefinitely. 16.Fungus infection (Ringworm) of the scalp – This is caused by a fungus infection. Ringworm (which has nothing to do with worms) begins as small patches of scaling that can spread and result in broken hair, redness, swelling, and even oozing. This contagious disease is most common in children and oral medication will cure it. 17.Hair pulling (Trichotillomania) - Children and sometimes adults will twist or pull their hair, brows or lashes until they come out. In children especially, this is often just a bad habit that gets better when the harmful effects of that habit are explained. Sometimes hair pulling can be a coping response to unpleasant stresses and occasionally is a sign of a serious problem needing the help of a mental health professional. How is the diagnosis confirmed?

 Dermatologists, physicians who specialize in treating diseases of the hair and skin, will evaluate a patient's hair problem by asking questions about diet, medications including vitamins and health food taken in the last six months, family history of hair loss, recent illness and hair care habits. Hormonal effects may be evaluated in women by asking about menstrual cycles, pregnancies and menopause. After examining the scalp and hair, the dermatologist may check a few hair under the microscope. Sometimes blood tests or a scalp biopsy may be required for an accurate diagnosis. It is important to find the cause and whether or not the problem will respond to medical treatment. What is the treatment? For hair loss caused by illness such as fever, radiation therapy, or medication use, no treatment is necessary. The hair will usually grow back when illness has ended or therapy has stopped. A wig, hat, or other covering may be desired until the hair grows back. Baldness, whether permanent or temporary, can't be cured. But treatments are available to help promote hair growth or hide hair loss. For some types of alopecia, hair may resume growth without any treatment. Medications The effectiveness of medications used to treat alopecia depends on the cause of hair loss, extent of the loss and individual response. Generally, treatment is less effective for more extensive cases of hair loss.


 The types of drugs for treatment of alopecia include Minoxidil: this is used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. Minoxidil is a liquid that you rub into your scalp twice daily to regrow hair and to prevent further loss. Finasteride: this prescription medication to treat male-pattern baldness is taken daily in pill form. Many people taking finasteride experience a slowing of hair loss, and some may show some new hair growth. This prescription medication to treat male-pattern baldness is taken daily in pill form. Finasteride is not approved for use by women. Corticosteroids: injections of cortisone into the scalp can treat alopecia areata. For hair loss caused by illness such as fever, radiation therapy, or medication use, no treatment is necessary. The hair will usually grow back when illness has ended or therapy has stopped. A wig, hat, or other covering may be desired until the hair grows back. As far as the environmental factors are concerned, diet plays a very important part. 

Monday, August 27, 2018

Lifestyle Diseases

There had been growing reviews of numerous lifestyle illnesses affecting the human beings from numerous international locations of the world. one of the fundamental reasons for that is a loss of time to think about good fitness. some of the opposite reasons include lack of awareness, physical problems, excessive paintings related strain, etc. the rural uneducated human beings do now not observe the fundamental ideas of nutrients. most of them also are negative.

Hypertension and immoderate blood sugar stages are the maximum critical dangers affecting the lives of many people. except for several other contributing factors, excessive salt within the body seems to be facilitating growth inside the degrees of blood pressure. The kidney is the essential organ which does control blood strain stages. consistent with the medical researchers, the readings above a hundred and forty/ninety are known as the hyper-anxiety. lesser salt consumption, rest, consuming inexperienced tea, eating or 3 garlic cloves inside the morning, and so forth are a number of the herbal treatments Balanced weight loss program or nutritious meals and brisk on foot also are useful. keeping off the volatile selections, planning the paintings flawlessly, fending off the disappointment, the inclusion of fun in one's lifestyles, meditation, yoga, control of time efficiently, healthful inter non-public competencies, and so forth might additionally resource in decreasing needless strain.

Correct sleep can reduce better glucose degrees. Our blood needs only sure minimum degrees of glucose. The immoderate amounts can cause several health problems. The excessive glucose inside the blood could cause its clotting. The body may lose its immunity. consuming our meals at regular periods could move an extended way in reducing the chance of high glucose degrees. natural herbs which include neem leaves, lady finger, garlic, onion, inexperienced tea, etc are of super help to maintain normal blood sugar ranges.

Weight problems is one of the essential factors in reducing the effectiveness of the people. it's also answerable for the onset of the above-mentioned health hazards. numerous elements do play a role in the growth in our body's weight. Many humans appear to be getting proper awareness approximately the unwell effects of immoderate weight.

Stroke, aerobic vascular diseases, loss of eyesight, and many others are a number of the consequences of improper lifestyle. scientific scientists do endorse to include extra vegetables within the eating regimen. strain appears to be essentially the mind's hassle. better glucose levels to motive strain.

Is My Friend Now In Heaven?

After  previous mini-strokes, my pal finally succumbed to cardiac arrest more than one months ago.

Christmas has an eerie way of making our mind meander, like a flowing stream flowing downhill. And one of those that stood out became a co-employee and a close friend I find tough to overlook for 2 reasons:

First, he became one of those guys who come into your lifestyles with a smile. He was continually inclined and prepared to offer a assisting hand, usually with a smile on his face, and continually ready for an sensible dialogue of a big selection of topics.

2d: he turned into lovably rotund. , like a balloon. I cherished poling his belly. He appeared like an over-elderly cherub.

once I met him, he was already obese. many years later (we parted methods for career change motives), i used to be taken aback to see him again. He had grown to astronomical proportions.

"My God, what have you ever accomplished to your self? Do you want to die early?" I instinctively exclaimed. He just gave me his ordinary grin as if announcing, "God will take care of me."

He turned into deeply non secular, the born-once more type, and has entrusted the whole thing to God. One time I requested him if he believes in Heaven. With excitement in his voice, he boomed, "Of direction I do. In reality, we are all destined to visit Heaven - even you."

I just said, "Wow!" (I do not agree with within the Biblical Heaven wherein appropriate souls supposedly pass).

nicely, God did not only contend with him, He took him away, - from his circle of relatives at age 54.

spiritual or not, deaths that age are constantly tragic, especially if they depart in the back of a grieving and homebound widow with children who have no longer completed college but.

The trustworthy will take his dying as God's will. however become his being overly overweight also of God?

weight problems isn't always of faith however neglect:

I confess i have a pork in opposition to obese human beings. out of doors of hormonal imbalance, I think it's far a result of laziness and overeating.

even as I recognize humans with deep non secular convictions, I accept as true with it's miles asking too much from God to lead them to wholesome whilst they bask in unhealthy habits.

Indulging in immoderate food is at odds with deep faith.

In Proverbs 23:2:

And put a knife to your throat in case you are given to urge for food.

Is weight problems a sin, then?

Kirkcameron.com says it isn't. irrespective of how you outline "fat," it isn't a sin. Then it argues:

"a few humans claim that being overweight is a sin due to the fact the Bible truely states that the body is the temple of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 6.19). however, we ought to ask, who determines the standard for overweight and who defines sin? The Bible does now not say that being obese is a sin, so we ought to by no means label something as sin when the Bible does not."

even as the argument looks logical on the surface, it ruefully absolves people of jeopardizing their health through excessive weight. Like this reader who commented:

"i've been keeping off mirrors due to my look and the constant reminder that i am disappointing God. thank you for assisting me release that guilt."

In impact she absolved herself from the guilt of being fat, but not for becoming fats. i am misplaced in the sense here.

It also with ease brushed aside the reasons that make human beings overweight, which, by means of and massive, are frowned upon by means of the Bible.

right here are some examples:

3 John 1:2: loved I pray that every one may work well with you and that you'll be in correct health, as it is going nicely with your soul.

Proverbs 30:eight: cast off a long way from me falsehood and mendacity; deliver me neither poverty nor riches, feed me with the food that is considered necessary for me.

Galatians five:sixteen: however I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will no longer gratify the goals of the flesh.

sooner or later in Genesis 2:4 - three:2:... Then our lord god fashioned a man from the dirt of the floor and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the person became a residing being.

Of route, we know how Eve turned into made - from Adam's ribs.

Contextually, consequently, God did no longer make man and female overweight.

may want to my friend be in Heaven now?

possibly no longer, however he'll. He might be in Purgatory now losing off those more pounds he carried whilst he departed.

What do you watched?

I retired from the company international as an engineering supervisor for some distance East Operations, a position which imbued in me a profound information on motivation, self-development, career making plans, surroundings, and organizational mechanics.

Now that i'm a senior, I completely properly know aged problems like loneliness, despair, fitness, bodily well being and fitness.

The Skinny On Obesity and Your Skin

Anybody knows the long list of clinical troubles associated with obesity: coronary heart disease, diabetes, excessive LDL cholesterol, fatty liver ailment, sleep apnea and too many others to listing right here. Few, however, recognize that extra weight also can affect the health and appearance of your pores and skin.

1. pimples. Sebum plays a primary role in its development. it's miles an oily substance produced with the aid of the sebaceous glands to keep the skin moisturized and supple. zits occur when the sebaceous channels are blocked and infected. pimples are genuinely exacerbated via obesity-associated disorders. additionally, in obese humans, androgens (male hormones) and insulin are raised (insulin resistance), and these are recognized as risk factors for acne.

2. Acanthosis nigricans. A body that carries too much weight undergoes shifts in hormone stages. Acanthosis nigricans is associated with insulin resistance and, as such, is a very commonplace skin hassle in weight problems, and one that I see very frequently in young obese girls who have PCOS. Acanthosis nigricans seems as darkish patches at the pores and skin, maximum generally seen within the armpits, groin, back of the neck, elbows, knuckles, and face.

3. Blood vessels of the skin. weight problems change bloodstream of the skin main to obesity-associated microangiopathy (small blood vessel disease) and high blood pressure. Blood flow inside the pores and skin is elevated in obese individuals.

4. Collagen shape and feature and wound recovery. obesity is likewise related to modifications in collagen structure. Collagen paperwork the shape of the skin and allows in wound restoration. but, overweight sufferers rarely show up facial wrinkles and weakening of the pores and skin or pores and skin laxity because of accelerated subcutaneous fats.

5. Corns and Calluses. The strain of weight can expand down into your feet, urgent pores and skin against the insides of shoes and rub painful corns onto theft.

6. Intertrigo. Intertrigo is a very not unusual inflammatory condition affecting areas of skin which are in touch with every different. Folds and creases within the skin can lure moisture, which could allow spots in your body to end up breeding grounds for bacteria, yeast, and fungi in such regions as the groin, armpits, below the breasts and pores and skin folds.

7. Lymph channels. weight problems impede or slows the lymphatic flow. This results in series of protein-rich lymphatic fluid inside the subcutaneous (beneath the pores and skin) tissue. this is referred to as lymphedema.

8. Psoriasis is an autoimmune condition which causes pink, scaly patches at the pores and skin. once concept to have an effect on only the skin, psoriasis is referred to now to be a reflection of systemic and continual immune-associated infection. obesity is related to irritation; dropping weight may also enhance psoriasis via quelling infection.

9. skin barrier characteristic. weight problems will increase water loss across the pores and skin to an extraordinary volume. The pores and skin of the morbidly obese are drastically dry, and pores and skin restore after wounds are impaired.

10. Stretch marks. whilst weight is rapidly received or lost, stretch marks can also rise up on the pores and skin's surface. those are long plaques determined in regions with the finest tension and are normally determined on the breasts, buttocks, stomach, and thighs. Stretch marks start off pink then gradually grow to be crimson, then pink.

11. eleven. Varicose Veins. The strain of bearing extra weight might also affect the veins on your legs and bring about varicose veins and rupture of floor capillaries.

certain, the way you devour, your standard weight loss program, is what continues your frame either slender and healthy or obese and bad, but its effect would not forestall there. The food you consume subjects for your skin almost as a great deal as it does to your waistline.

I am captivated with supporting my clients end up slim and healthful. I submit a weekly blog and podcast to educate and motivate on all issues related to #weightloss, #weight problems, fitness and well-being, weight loss plan and lifestyle exchange.

Cut Out Sugar and Eat Saturated Fats to Fight Obesity - Part 1

Stop sugar, eat more fats, and become slimmer and healthier.


It has been reckoned that inside the uk (2016) nearly six out of ten women and -thirds of men are overweight. nutritional suggestions are to eat plenty of carbohydrates, consume little so-called 'heart sickness-causing' saturated fats like butter and entire milk, to devour 'low-fat' ingredients, and to ensure five end result and veggies are eaten every day.

It is clear that most of this dietary recommendation isn't working. The component approximately fruit and greens are satisfactory because the one's meals are resources of healthful dietary fiber, nutrients, and minerals.

The weight problems epidemic is out of manipulating. but many humans do their pleasant to 'devour less' and to 'exercise extra'. but we maintain to get fatter and heavier. The most effective component that the dietary recommendations appear to be doing is to gasoline a 'billion-pound weight-reduction plan industry'. The population is turning into considered one of "sugar-yearning, disappointed yo-yo dieters".

Luckily, this health disaster might also now be at a turning factor. South African and U.S. scientists have shown that the ignorantly promoted 'low-fat, more carbohydrate' diet endorsed by way of food experts has been extremely useless. It even looks as if these hints may be at once accountable for the weight problems disaster.

The brand new wondering is that irrespective of weight, we ought to be eating greater fat, not much less, and severely proscribing if no longer slicing out altogether sugars. common amongst those sugars are common sucrose (desk sugar) and the very dangerous fructose.

leading united kingdom heart specialist Dr. Aseem Malhotra has set out the case for a thorough change of thinking to bring in a low-carbohydrate weight loss program that is high in natural saturated fat. this can surely be the key to ending the weight problems epidemic and lowering the escalation of heart disorder and kind 2 diabetes.

A 'low-carbohydrate, healthful fat' weight loss program will be the way out of sugar dependency and the key to losing weight and staying slim all the time.

This new method is about re-thinking what we eat, starting with stopping consuming sugar-wealthy ingredients. lamentably, most of the people consume the equivalent of twenty-two teaspoons of sugar each day. The trouble is that sweet things are very addictive - they may be like opiates.

The sugary, carbohydrate-rich diets we have depended on for years, collectively with all the fancy snacks to be had, have left lots of us 'hooked' on sugar. but it is not best candy treats that get us hooked. it is also the 'complex carbohydrates' together with starch - which wreck down into simple sugars - that maintain our cravings.

All processed ingredients contain sugar. if you 'examine the labels' you may be startled to discover just how a great deal sugar is added to packaged, canned and bottled merchandise.

With sugars playing this sort of huge element in our lives, it seems not possible to stop them. that is the opiate hyperlink.

persevered in part 2...

Why Setting a Good Example to Your Children Is Essential

Recent facts have found out that baby weight problems all through the world these days is increasing at an alarming charge; not just within the globe's richest countries however in lots of undeveloped nations too which depicts that the human race has come to be indolent. this case will not best have an effect on your grandchildren, however, their youngsters as properly and if something isn't completed this dilemma will keep deteriorating.

Governments and lecturers are at a loss to discover a way to oppose this appalling trend which has been added about through your technology. After the hard times that followed international conflict II, it turned into fresh to have the ability to buy prepared-made food and takeaway meals. lifestyles were harsh for a number of years and small luxuries have been visible as an entitlement and why not?

fast forward forty years and in lots of houses the kitchen has the least use; the cookers are like new due to the fact many families exist on prepared meals and comfort ingredients. producers of those meals cut corners and add bad fats, immoderate salt and sugar to beautify and hold the flavors encouraging repeat business.

This promotes the cycle of laziness that prospers in society today and places an extremely good burden at the health services of many nations. docs are over-worked because of the self-inflicted illnesses which you impose upon yourself frequently creating similarly medical troubles and illness.

Your youngsters and grandchildren are becoming fatter because they comply with the example in their parents and grandparents. how are you going to inform your grandchild to soak up a game or take a few kinds of exercise if your lifestyle is something but active?

An example must be set and it's miles down to you to transform your lifestyles for the sake of the generations to come back. in spite of everything in case you are not ingesting a nutritious weight-reduction plan comprising sparkling fruit and veggies and your cabinets are full of processed meals and equipped meals, you can't assume your grandchildren to eat healthily.

many of brand new young people are very astute and do not omit a trick; they normally have an answer for the whole lot so the simplest way to make certain that they're eating a proper food plan and getting enough exercising is to reveal them how it's miles achieved. this could involve a few arguments initially but if you are doing right by means of yourself you're in turn doing all your best for them and this could be glaring for everybody to peer.

everybody wishes to be conscious that we're all answerable for the well-being of our destiny generations. If we undertake a lazy lifestyle our youngsters will comply with the suit so it's miles all the way down to us to steer by using instance and show them a way to stay a healthful and energetic lifestyle.

Sunday, August 26, 2018

GASTRIC & GASTRIC FUNCTION TESTS


GASTRIC & GASTRIC FUNCTION TESTS

What ever food or drink we consume is sent to stomach where it is stored for further degradation. The stomach is a major organ of digestion and performs the following functions:

1  1.  Stomach is a reservoir of ingested food.
2.    It has a great churning ability which promotes digestion.
3.    Stomach elaborates HCl and proteases which are responsible for the initiation of digestive process.
4.    The products obtained in the stomach stimulate the release of pancreatic juice and bile.

Secretion Of Gastric HCl 
The parietal cells of gastric glands produce HCl. The pH in the gastric lumen is as low as 0.8 (against the blood pH 7.4). Therefore, the protons are transported against the concentration gradient by an active process.

A unique enzyme called K+ activated ATPase present in the parietal cells is connected with the mechanism of HCl secretion. The process involves an exchange of H+ ions (of the parietal cells) for K+ ions (of the lumen). This is coupled with the consumption of energy, supplied by ATP. The H+ are continuously generated in the parietal cells by the dissociation of carbonic acid, which in turn, is produced from CO2. The bicarbonate ions (HCO3-), liberated from the carbonic acid (H2CO3) dissociation, enter the blood in exchange for Cl- ions. The latter diffuse into the gastric lumen to form HCl. Gastrin,a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal tract, stimulates HCl secretion.

Following a meal, there is a slight elevation in the plasma bicarbonate concentration which is linked to the gastric HCl secretion. This is referred to as alkaline tide.

TESTS TO ASSESS GASTRIC FUNCTION
There are several tests for gastric function evaluation, some of the important ones are listed below:

Fractional Test Meal: This is rather old and not used these days. Fractional test meal (FTM) involves the collection of stomach contents by Ryle’s tube in fasting. This is followed by a gastric stimulation, giving a test meal (rice, black coffee etc.) The stomach contents are aspirated by Ryle’s tube at different time periods (usually every 15 min for 2 hrs.) The samples are analyzed for free and total acidity in the laboratory. The results are normally represented by a graph.

Pentagastrin Stimulation Test: Pentagastrin is a synthetic peptide which stimulates the gastric secretion in a manner similar to the natural gastrin. The test procedure adapted is as follows:

The stomach contents are aspirated by Ryle’s tube in a fasting condition. This is referred to as residual juice. The gastric juice elaborated for the next one hour is collected and pooled which represents the basal secretion. Pentagastrin (5 microgram/kg body weight) is now given to stimulate gastric secretion. The gastric juice is collected at 15 minute intervals for one hour. This represents the maximum secretion. Each sample of the gastric secretion collected is measured for acidity by titrating the samples with N/10 NaOH to pH 7.4. The end point may be detected by an indicator (phenol red) or a pH meter.
Basal acid output (BAO) refers to the acid output under the basal conditions i.e. secretion.

Maximal acid output (MAO) represents the acid output after the gastric stimulation by pentagastrin i.e. maximum sexretion.

In normal individuals, the BAO is 4-10 mmol/hr while the MAO is 20-50 mmol/hr.

Augment Histamine Test Meal
Histamine is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion. The basal gastric secretion is collected for one hour. Histamine is administered subcutaneously and the gastric contents are aspirated for the next one hour at 15 minute intervals. The acid content is measured in all these samples.

Insulin Test Meal
This is also known as Hollander’s test. It is mainly done to assess the completeness of vagotomy (vagal resection). Insulin (0.1 unit/kg body weight) is administered intravenously which causes hypoglycemia usually within 30 minute, in normal persons.
If the vagotomy operation is successful, insulin administration does notcause any increase in the acid output, compared to the basal level. This test has to be carefully performed, since hypoglycemia is dangerous.

Tubeless Gastric Analysis
In the traditional methods of gastric analysis, a tube is invariably passed into the stomach to collect the gastric juice. This causes inconvenience to the subject. Recently, some tests involving tubeless gastric analysis have been developed. Such tests, however, are mostly useful for preliminary screening.

The principle of tubeless gastric analysis involves administration of a cation exchange resin that gets quantitatively exchanged with the H+ ions of the gastric juice. The resin is then excreted into the urine which can be estimated for an indirect measure of gastric acidity (concentration of H+ ions).

What is a Gastric Emptying Study (GET)?

A Gastric Emptying Study is a test to determine the time is takes a meal to move through a person’s stomach. It is typically ordered by physicians for patients with frequent vomiting, gastroparesis, abdominal pain, early satiety and pre-operative evaluation.

Abnormally high blood glucose (sugar) levels also can slow emptying of the stomach. Therefore, it is important to control blood glucose levels to near normal levels before performing emptying studies in people with diabetes who are prone to develop high blood glucose levels.

(SOURCE: Online Reference)

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Saturday, August 25, 2018

Home Remedies To Cure Blisters


Home Remedies To Cure Blisters


Foot blisters are little blemishes or boils on the foot caused by heat, shoe-bites or even when the foot is exposed to excess moisture. Even though blisters have no particular season to appear on your skin, summer and monsoons can make you more susceptible to blisters. So now that you understand the reasons responsible for such boils appearing on your skin, but you surely can treat them at home. Home remedies are natural treatments for the skin which do not bring along any side effects for your body.

Some of the best home remedies to treat blisters:

 

1. Aloe vera
Aloe vera is a mother's cure for anything, but of course for a valid reason. It has cooling and healing properties which reduce heat in the affected area. It also reduces swelling on the blister. Apply some aloe vera gel on the blister and let it dry. It may give you a burning or itching sensation but that is when you know that the healing process is on. After it dries up, wash it off with warm water. It is preferable to do this twice a day for the number of days it takes for the blister to reduce.

2. Green tea
Green tea has anti-inflammatory and healing properties. It also has antioxidants and vitamins that help ease the pain and reduces swelling on the blisters. Dip one bag of green tea in hot water and add baking soda. Let the tea bag cool for some time and apply it on the blister for some time. Baking soda has antiseptic components which prevents infections. Keep dabbing the tea bag on the blister for some time. Do this two to three times a day.

3. Apple cider vinegar
This is another easy home remedy to treat blisters. Apple cider vinegar helps reduce swelling and the pain. Its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties help calm the pain and restrict the spread of infection. Here is what you have to do - soak a ball of cotton in the apple cider vinegar and dab it on the affected area. This might be really painful but it can speed up the treatment. You can also use the mixture onion paste and apple cider vinegar and apply it on the blister and then you can wash it off as soon as it dries off. Repeat this treatment twice a day and continue it for 3-4 days.

4. Castor oil
Castor oil has been used as a home remedy for hair growth, for lips and now it is touted to be effective even for blisters. It can be used on blisters to moisturize it so as to prevent dryness, itchiness, and redness. Castor oil works as midnight magical elves on your blisters. All you have to do is to apply it on the blisters and sleep. It dries out overnight and gives you relief the next morning. You can also apply castor oil and half a cup of white vinegar on the blister and let it dry. You can do this two to three times a day.

5. Petroleum jelly
You thought petroleum jelly can only heal chapped lips? Well, there is a lot more that petroleum jelly has to offer. You can apply it every night on the blister and sleep. It helps reduce pain and cure dryness. You can also soak your feet in warm water for 15 minutes twice a day and then dry it off with a towel and apply petroleum jelly on it. While warm water soothes pain and infection, the jelly will help keep it moisturized.

6. Salt
Salt has healing properties and helps soothe the pain caused by blisters. You can add some salt in ice-cold water and soak a cloth in that water. Then use the same cloth on the blister. You can also put salt in the warm water and soak your feet in that for 15 minutes. This will help you bring the swelling down and will reduce pain as well.

(SOURCE NDTV Doctor)

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Thursday, August 23, 2018

What are SGOT and SGPT?

What are SGOT and SGPT?
Both SGOT and SGPT are enzymes produced by liver cells of which SGPT is very much liver specific. When the liver cells get damaged these enzymes get released and their levels in the blood go high. As for instance, in case of viral infection of the liver called Hepatitis, the levels can be very high due to cell damage and by monitoring them regularly the doctor can assess the severity as well as the improvement or deterioration. This ofcourse has to be taken into account as with other tests and investigations. SGPT on the other hand can be produced by cells from other parts. This in a nutshell and if your enzymes are persistently high further investigations are indicated. Finally, both the enzymes SGOT and SGPT were re-named over two decades ago and are now known as ALT and AST.

What Do High Levels OfSGOT/SGPT In A Liver Test Mean? 

People who live a sedentary lifestyle, do not eat healthily and constantly consume alcohol are likely to develop fatty liver or cause other damages to the liver. One of the most common blood tests is a liver blood test, which assesses liver functions or liver injury. A basic liver blood test determines the level of certain enzymes (proteins) in the blood, which regulate the functioning of important chemical reactions in the body. Among the most sensitive and widely used liver enzymes are the aminotransferases. They include aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT).

An increase in the SGOT and SGPT levels are indicative of a certain liver damage and getting a proper diagnosis is recommended in that case.

Whatare normal levels of SGOT (AST) and SGPT (ALT) ?

  •          The normal range of values for AST (SGOT) is about 0 to 40 units per liter of serum (the liquid part of the blood).
  •          The normal range of values for ALT (SGPT) is about 0 to 50 units per liter of serum.


However, the ranges of AST and ALT numbers may differ slightly depending on the technique and protocols used by different laboratories worldwide. However, normal reference ranges are routinely provided by each laboratory and printed with each patient's individual report.


(SOURCE NDTV Doctor)

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Monday, August 20, 2018

5 herbs which can help in dissolving uric acid


5 herbs which can help in dissolving uric acid



High levels of uric acid in the body can lead to several diseases. Uric acid increases when we consume foods rich in purine. Accumulation of uric acid can lead to severe problems such as kidney stones and gout. These cause intense pain and inflammation in the body and joints. Hyperuricemia is another medical condition which can be caused because of high production of uric acid in the body. Hyperuricemia can also be caused because of inability of the body to filter out the excess uric acid during urination or excretion. In this post, we share some herbs which can help in preventing or treating hyperuricemia. 

1. Lemon herbs
Vitamin C rich lemon herbs can reduce inflammation in the body by increasing formation of calcium carbonate in the body. Lemon juice can be made using herbs. Lemon juice contains citric acid, an organic substance which can help in dissolving uric acid crystals. It also decreases concentration of uric acid in the body. Vitamin C strengthens the connective tissue and reduces pain in joints. One glass of fresh lemon juice every day can help in dissolving uric acid.
2. Devil's claw (Baghnakh)
Devil's claw is a naturally occurring substance which reduces inflammation in affected areas of the body. It has been proven effective in treating symptoms of various types of arthritis, including gout. Uric acid may be effectively reduced in the blood and be dissolved using devil's claw. Devil's claw is in fact even recommended to those with osteoarthritis. Take this herb according to the instructions of a herbalist.
3. Burdock root
Burdock root is a frequently recommended herb for treating acute gout attacks. Burdock root has properties which enable the excess uric acid to pass through the urine. This herb is also very useful to cleanse toxins from the blood and reduce inflammation. Not only is burdock root helpful in dissolving uric acid, it is also helpful in treating gout.
4. Sour black cherries 
Antioxidant rich sour black cherries can help in reducing pain and inflammation caused because of kidney stones and gout. Hence, sour black cherries prove effective in dissolving uric acid. It also reduces the serum level in the acid. These cherries neutralize uric acid crystals and reduce excess amount of uric acid in the body. You can either consume a handful of cherries each day or take a glass of fresh black cherries. Black cherries have proven to reduce gout attacks quite effectively.
5. Alfalfa sprouts 
Extremely rich in vitamins and minerals, alfalfa sprouts help a great deal in the reduction of serum levels in the uric acid. Alfalfa sprouts also improve condition of kidneys, prostate and bladder health. Alfalfa increases the pH levels in the body which then enables it to dissolve uric acid crystals. Alfalfa sprouts are good for treating gout as well. You can consume alfalfa sprouts in the form of salad, or in a sandwich filling, or even as a topping in your meals.
(SOURCE NDTV DOCTOR)

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All material copyright healthcare nt sickcare. 2017 – 2018. Terms and conditions & Privacy Policyof use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: This article inspired from various online articles and own offline experiences. The content meant for public awareness and regular post to clientele of healthcare nt sickcare.

Sunday, August 19, 2018

14 best home remedies to get rid of cavities

14 best home remedies to get rid of cavities


Remember how as children we were constantly rebuked for eating too many sweets or chocolates and were always reminded to brush our teeth before sleeping as well? All this effort was put because our parents did not want us to develop cavities and tooth decay. Cavities and tooth decay are the most common oral health problems. Cavities are seen mostly among children and aged people. However, it can occur to anyone. A dental cavity is a tiny hole in the teeth that can lead to tooth decay. The cavity is caused by the bacteriaon the surface of the teeth that creates acid out of sugar. The bacteria form a plaque which is sticky in nature. This plaque releases acid that removes all minerals present on the enamel. This erosion causes tiny holes in the enamel. Once the acid spreads underneath the enamel, it causes the cavity.
Brushing your teeth twice a day - once after waking up and once before sleeping- is the ideal way to not only get rid of cavities but is also good for general dental health. You should also rinse your mouth after eating anything.

Here's a list of 14 best home remedies to get rid of cavities.


1. Fluoride mouthwash
Fluoride is good for teeth and it helps restore the minerals in the teeth. Since demineralizing or lack of minerals are a cause of tooth decay, using fluoride mouthwash can be a great home remedy to get rid of cavities as well as tooth decay.

2. Clove
Clove can be the best ingredient to cure any oral health problem, including cavities. Due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties, clove can alleviate pain and prevent cavity to spread.

3. Garlic
Besides being an incredible taste enhancer, garlic is also a health marvel. Eating raw garlic is also very beneficial for oral health. It has antifungal and antibacterial properties in it which works as a painkiller.

4. Bone Broth
Bone broth is a soup made up of boiling bones of healthy animals mixed with fresh vegetables. It is loaded with lots of vitamins, minerals, and fats which are very beneficial for our health. It consists of calcium and magnesium which remove cavities from our teeth and fight tooth decay.

5. Saltwater
Salt water is the most common home remedy for any of the oral health problem. It keeps the mouth bacteria free and removes the stickiness from the cavities. The salt in water neutralizes the pH level in our mouth by removing acids.

6. Clove oil
Clove contains eugenol in it, which plays a role of painkiller. Therefore, clove oil provides quick relief from pain caused by cavity and tooth decay. Its antimicrobial constituents inhibit the growth of any bacteria, fungi or virus.

7. Oil pulling
The technique of using vegetable oil to eliminate impurities is called oil pulling. In this technique, you have to rinse your mouth with oil for 5-10 minutes; you can use any vegetable oil like olive oil or coconut oil. The rinsing process pulls the bacteria out of your mouth. It is very effective for cavities and tooth decay, and it also decreases swelling present in the gum.

8. Lemon
Lemons are rich in vitamin C; the acids present in lemon juice kill the germs and help in easing pain caused by the cavities. You need to keep a lemon in your mouth, chew it and then rinse your mouth with clean water.

9. Tea tree oil
Tea tree oil has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties in it, which helps in fighting the cavities. It is a simple process - you just have to massage your teeth and gums with tea tree oil and then rinse your mouth with warm water.

10. Neem
We all know that in older times people used to brush their teeth with neem sticks instead of a toothbrush. Neem is definitely a very effective way to get healthier teeth. The fiber content in it keeps plaque away from your teeth. The technique is very simple, you just have to chew neem leaves and then immediately have to rinse your mouth with water. Neem remains the traditional solution to every medical condition in every household.

11. Baking soda
Baking soda is an antimicrobial agent. It's alkali properties neutralizes the acids present in the mouth and prevent it by causing cavities and tooth decay. Dip a wet brush in baking soda and then brush your teeth with it. You need to be cautious regarding brushing with baking soda, as it can damage the enamel. You should brush with baking soda for a few days only. Another fun fact is that baking soda also whitens the teeth.

12. Eggshell
Eggshells have calcium carbonate in it which removes the decay and refills the mineral back in the enamel. Clean the eggshell and boil it and then further dry it and grind it into powder. Add baking soda and coconut oil to the powder and use it as toothpaste. Keep the paste in an air-packed container.

13. Turmeric
In Ayurveda, turmeric is often used to provide relief from cavities. It has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties which keep the gums healthy and prevent tooth decay. There are two ways to use turmeric. First, apply turmeric on the affected teeth for a few minutes and then rinse your mouth. Second, mix turmeric with mustard oil and massage with the mixture on the teeth and gums for 10 minutes.

14. Wheatgrass
Wheatgrass is a good source of vitamin A and E along with iron, calcium, and magnesium. It has antibacterial properties that prevent cavities and tooth decay. Drink a glass of wheatgrass juice or mix 1 part of wheatgrass juice with 6 parts of water and rinse the mouth with it or directly chew wheatgrass if infected.

(SOURCE NDTV HEALTH)

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What is hysterosalpingography (HSG)?

What is hysterosalpingography (HSG)?

Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an X-ray procedure that is used to view the inside of the uterus and fallopian tubes. It often is used to see if the fallopian tubes are partly or fully blocked. It also can show if the inside of the uterus is of a normal size and shape. All of these problems can lead to infertility and pregnancy problems.
HSG also is used a few months after some tubal sterilization procedures to make sure that the fallopian tubes have been completely blocked. HSG is not done if a woman has any of the following conditions:
• Pregnancy
• Pelvic infection
• Heavy uterine bleeding at the time of the procedure

What should I do to prepare for HSG?

Your health care provider may recommend that you take an over-the-counter pain reliever an hour before the procedure. Discuss this decision with your health care provider. In some cases, he or she also may prescribe an antibiotic for you to take before HSG. Most people can drive themselves home after having HSG. However, you may not feel well after the procedure, so you may want to make arrangements for someone to drive you home.
How is HSG done?

HSG is done in a hospital, clinic, or health care provider’s office. It is best to have HSG done in the first half (days 1–14) of the menstrual cycle. This timing reduces the chance that you may be pregnant.
During HSG, a contrast medium is placed in the uterus and fallopian tubes. This is a fluid that contains a dye. The dye shows up in contrast to the body structures on an X-ray screen. The dye outlines the inner size and shape of the uterus and fallopian tubes. It also is possible to see how the dye moves through the body structures.

The procedure is performed as follows:
• You will be asked to lie on your back with your feet placed as for a pelvic exam. A device called a speculum is inserted into the vagina. It holds the walls of the vagina apart to allow the cervix to be viewed. The cervix is cleaned.
• The end of the cervix may be injected with local anesthesia (pain relief). You may feel a slight pinch or tug as this is done.
• One of two methods may be used to insert the dye. In one method, the cervix is grasped with a device to hold it steady. An instrument called a cannula is then inserted into the cervix. In the other method, a thin plastic tube is passed into the cervical opening. The tube has a small balloon at the end that is inflated. The balloon keeps the tube in place in the uterus.
• The speculum is removed, and you are placed beneath an X-ray machine.
• The fluid slowly is placed through the cannula or tube into the uterus and fallopian tubes. The fluid may cause cramping. If the tubes are blocked, the fluid will cause them to stretch.
• X-ray images are made as the contrast medium fills the uterus and tubes. You may be asked to change position. If there is no blockage, the fluid will spill slowly out the far ends of the tubes. After it spills out, the fluid is absorbed by the body.
• After the images are made, the cannula or tube is removed.

What should I expect after the procedure?

After HSG, you can expect to have a sticky vaginal discharge as some of the fluid drains out of the uterus. The fluid may be tinged with blood. A pad can be used for the vaginal discharge. Do not use a tampon. You also may have the following symptoms:
• Slight vaginal bleeding
• Cramps
• Feeling dizzy, faint, or sick to your stomach

What are the risks associated with HSG?

Severe problems after an HSG are rare. They include an allergic reaction to the dye, injury to the uterus, or pelvic infection. Call your health care provider if you have any of these symptoms:
• Foul-smelling vaginal discharge
• Vomiting
• Fainting
• Severe abdominal pain or cramping
• Heavy vaginal bleeding
• Fever or chills

Are there alternatives to HSG?

There are other procedures that can give your health care provider some of the same information as HSG:
• Laparoscopy —This surgical procedure requires general anesthesia
• Hysteroscopy —This procedure can give a detailed view of the inside of the uterus. However, it cannot show whether the fallopian tubes are blocked
• Sonohysterography —This technique uses ultrasound to show the inside of the uterus. Like hysteroscopy, it does not give information about the fallopian tubes

(SOURCE ACOG.ORG)

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